More than two million people are internally displaced in Yemen. Displacement is becoming increasingly protracted as an estimated 89% of the IDPs have been displaced for one year or more.76% of IDPs are women and children. 44% remain displaced within their governorate of origin. IDPs in Yemen originate mainly from Taizz, Lahj, and Al Hudaydah governorates, and are fleeing to Taizz, Aden, and Lahj, which together host 80% of IDPs. The recent upsurge in Al Hudaydah has further attributed to displacement to Aden and Lahj. The protracted crisis not only simmered political conflict, but gradually social and economic front has also become visible. The conflict assessment conducted in 2017 under the ongoing Yemen Stabilization project (YSP) highlights that; water, land grabbing and occupation of government buildings by armed groups are major conflicts which affect the communities in general including host and returnees. Further, the political legitimacy and power struggle within southern region has deepen despite a collective movement to overthrow the northern establishment. The market assessment conducted in 2017(by YSP) shows that the unemployment rates among women and youth Aden and nearby districts are very high. The conflict has led in the lack of production of crop, livestock rearing, fish production and supply to local markets. The livelihoods of majority of rural households engaged in crop and livestock production have been impacted. Reduced operating hours and private sector layoffs, coupled with unpaid salaries for some 30% of the population in the public-sector employment, have affected income and decreased purchasing power. The ongoing conflict and power struggle in the south has also resulted into the collapse of basic services and the institutions that provided critical services to the affected people. Protracted crisis, decline in macro-economic indicators and followed by the liquidity, inflation, disruption of operational budgets and salary payment in public sector institutions have contributed to this collapse. Southern region has also increasingly becoming a hotspot of susceptible to disease outbreaks; such as cholera, diarrhea and diphtheria. As per the recent humanitarian bulletin updates, July 2018, only 50% of health facilities are now functional and rest either is partial or nonfunctional. Crippled public health and WaSH systems has contributed to the unprecedented scale of the 2017 cholera outbreak, which followed by a rapidly spreading suspected diphtheria outbreak attributed to low vaccination coverage. Only half of the health facilities are function, and even these faces severe shortage of medicines, storages, equipment, access to energy, and staff. Negative coping mechanisms affecting children include increased household borrowing and rising rates of child marriage. Recruitment of children and youths into armed forces and groups have been reported widely. Women and girls are disproportionately subject to various forms of gender-based violence (GBV), including sexual violence, domestic violence, forced and child marriages, denial of resources and psychological and emotional abuse, The GBV information management system reported a 36% rise in GBV incidents in 2017, but many cases are unreported. Migrants and refugees transiting through Yemen are in a particularly vulnerable position and southern region is becoming the center stage for the above due to access to sea routes. Migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are increasingly subject to extortion, trafficking, abuse, and sexual violence. They are also at risk of being deported, many of them on boats operated by smugglers. The Muhamasheen minority (Arabic for 'marginalised'), that constitute around 10% of the population, are in high need of humanitarian assistance. The cities most affected by conflict – such as Aden, Taizz and Al Hudaydah – had large concentrations of Muhamasheen and many have been internally displaced. The recent conflict in Al Hudaydah has further burdened the Muhamasheen as they continue to live in abandoned buildings, make-shift tents and public spaces. They are reportedly turned away by schools and hospitals, and have difficulty accessing aid from humanitarian organisations due to discrimination. In summary, as a political solution to end the war and to rebuild shattered country appears still a distant dream, however, quick impact solutions need to protect and empower local actors to mitigate disruptions to livelihoods and services, improved access to energy, prevent the reoccurrence of conflict and create enabling environment for longer term recovery and reconstruction. The ongoing stabilization programme in the south is a multifaceted approach, addressing the socio-economic needs of vulnerable communities as well as their physical security and enable them to uphold their rights. The Yemen Stabilization Project phase I aimed building on the foundations laid by the achievements of humanitarian aid in the Southern Region; Aden Governorate. The project approach focused on the analysis of the immediate post-conflict vulnerabilities and their differentiated impacts on women, men, boys and girls, and has incorporated planning for transition to longer-term recovery and development. A series of rapid assessments in 2015 conducted and updated with a human security situation tool in 2016 identifying immediate priorities affecting the resilience of communities and affected populations. Our client launched the above intervention to support the poor livelihood conditions households in post conflict which have increased the rate of poverty and have created extra burdens on the house holds who suffers enormously provide dayday basic needs to their family members. The project targeted most vulnerable in Aden Governorate supporting their Livelihoods opportunities, protection mechanisms and knowledge production applied, in which vocational training and small in-kind grants to create micro-businesses in programme areas were provided to beneficiaries. The project also provide protection means, capacity building and psychosocial support to those who were traumatized due to conflict. Both activities were built on knowledge production created before launching the activity to specify the intervention and learn gaps and chances for effective interventions to support the community. Approximately 179,598 indirect beneficiaries benefited from provided services as well as 390 beneficiaries beneficiated directly through grants for micro businesses creation. In addition, entrepreneurial skills were improved for 420 beneficiaries (of which 210 were female) through vocational training and tool kits and linkage with providers of financial services and training services. Given the complexity of the security situation, our client conducted 3 Stabilization Needs Opportunity and Engagement Assessment (SNOEA) on infrastructure damage and conflict in the south, through the stabilization programme, in which the capacities of 30 local communities and civil society were enhanced on conflict analysis & drivers of conflict. 390 beneficiaries (50% female) were selected out of the trained 420 beneficiaries & were supported through business grants improving their livelihoods & reintegration to the society.
The key achievements attributed to the project include the following:
· Rapid integrated assessments conducted in the targeted areas as an initial entry point for the identification of community stabilisation needs and priorities.
· 420 beneficiaries (50% were women) benefitted from vocational and business skill development and 390 received micro business opportunities through the project grant provision
· 100 justice providers were trained on protection means and psychosocial support in order to be part of the protection network
· 500 beneficiaries received psychosocial sessions
· 3 safe space created to host individual sessions
· 3 community initiatives selected to initiate protection initiatives
· Protection network established and a networking app linking stakeholders was created
The lessons learned from earlier stabilization efforts in Aden and the changing situation on the ground demands for a more inclusive, community-based and community-driven as well as sustainable initiatives that support security and stability.
Community perception surveys proved that communities of Aden felt broader economic interventions along with provision of livelihoods not only for target piloting groups but also unemployed youth and at-risk groups need to be carried out to have a trickle effect of stimulating the rural economy, promoting community security and contributing to the stability of the affected communities, all of which have fed into the project design of phase II. Our client is seeking for a consultant for livelihood and protection assessment under YSP intervention to support the team understand the changes (if any) took place against the baseline parameters and how better future programming can be shaped based on the findings of the assessment.