Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Somalia has been a key peacebuilding and state-building objective. Generally, efforts in Somalia to rebuild the security sector have met with only limited success for many reasons, including fighting an ongoing insurgent war while trying to reform, a lack of capacity within the institutions, a lack of coordination by donors and partners, and a lack of coherent Government security policy. In February 2017 a newly elected President formed a new Federal Government of Somalia (FGS), in what is now an almost fully developed federation of states within Somalia. The Federal Member States (FMS) are increasingly gaining governance and development experience and are asserting themselves across the spectrum on governance, security and development, as they define their respective relationships with the FGS. On 16 April 2017, the FGS and FMS signed a National Security Architecture (NSArch) Agreement, thereby signifying important progress in defining SSR at FGS and FMS levels. This was followed on 11 May 2017 by International Partners agreeing a Security Pact that requires all parties to embark on a fresh approach to supporting the security sector in Somalia through a Comprehensive Approach to Security (CAS) within an overall framework of the National Development Plan (NDP). There is general recognition that support to the security sector needs to be more than just about the armed forces, and that SSR needs to address the causes of extremism and build capacity within the FGS and FMS to manage security.
As such, it is now essential for OUR CLIENT to better contribute to SSR with its partners in UNSOM in order to deliver a more sector wide approach that addresses support to the CAS and the recommendations made by the recently concluded UNSOM Strategic Assessment Report, which indicates that the FGS makes security one of the important priority areas to address. There is therefore an opportunity to join UNSOM’s efforts to bring the UN’s various elements of work together to deliver a harmonized, comprehensive, cohesive and integrated approach to SSR that is people centric, focuses on increasing democratic oversight and which particularly emphasises the importance of national ownership in SSR processes.
The work of the UN Integrated SSR in support of the CAS focused primarily on the CAS’s Strand 2 cross-cutting themes, including the centrality of civilian oversight, with ROLSIG’s Defence, Police and Joint Justice & Correction Sections leading UN efforts within 2A, 2B and 2C respectively. This will be done through the UN Integrated SSR Project Document. The SSR project of OUR CLIENT falls within the overall governance structure of the Rule of law and Security programme portfolio where justice, police and other interlinked areas of the security area based and therefore would be important for the close coordination and complementarities to be established between the project interventions. To ensure effectiveness of the SSR project, a national security sector reform Officer shall be recruited. The National Officer will report directly to the SSR Advisor and coordinate regularly with the Rule of Law project and portfolio manager of OUR CLIENT and the Strategic Security Adviser Rule of Law & Security Institutions Group (ROLSIG) United Nations Assistance Mission In Somalia (UNSOM).